23rd Georgia Infantry

Dictionary of 19th Century Ailments

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23rd Georgia Infantry’s
Medical Ailment’s
From The Soldier’s Records

Abscesses = is a collection of pus (dead neutrophils) that has accumulated in a cavity formed by the tissue on the basis of an infectious process (usually caused by bacteria or parasites) or other foreign materials (e.g. splinters, bullet wounds, or injecting needles). It is a defensive reaction of the tissue to prevent the spread of infectious materials to other parts of the body.
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Adiposis = Abnormal accumulation of fat in the body (Fatty tumor)
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Anasarca = The anasarca generally begins with a swelling of the feet and ankles towards night, which for some time, disappears in the morning. In the evening the parts, if pressed with the finger, will pit. The swelling gradually ascends, and occupies the trunk of the body, the arms, and the head. Afterwards the breathing becomes difficult, the urine is in small quantity, and the thirst great; the body is bound, and the perspiration is greatly obstructed. To these succeed torpor, heaviness, a slow wasting fever, and a troublesome cough. This last is generally a fatal symptom, as it shows that the lungs are affected
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Anchylosis = is a stiffness of a joint, the result of injury or disease. The rigidity may be complete or partial and may be due to inflammation of the tendinous or muscular structures outside the joint or of the tissues of the joint itself. When the structures outside the joint are affected, the term "false" ankylosis has been used in contradistinction to "true" ankylosis, in which the disease is within the joint. When inflammation has caused the joint-ends of the bones to be fused together the ankylosis is termed osseous or complete. Excision of a completely ankylosed shoulder or elbow may restore free mobility and usefulness to the limb. "Ankylosis" is also used as an anatomical term, bones being said to ankylose (or anchylose) when, from being originally distinct, they coalesce, or become so joined together that no motion can take place between them.
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Anemia = is a condition in which the number of red blood cells or the amount of hemoglobin (the protein that carries oxygen in them) is low.
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Archolosis = Condition pertaining to the lower jaw
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Ascites = Accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity, Small amounts of fluid in the abdominal cavity usually produce no symptoms, but massive amounts may cause abdominal swelling (distention) and discomfort. Pressure on the stomach from the swollen abdomen may lead to loss of appetite, and pressure on the lungs may lead to shortness of breath. When a doctor taps (percusses) the abdomen, the fluid makes a dull sound. When the abdominal cavity contains large amounts of fluid, the abdomen is taut, and the navel is flat or even pushed out. In some people with ascites, the ankles swell with excess fluid (edema). However, a doctor may not be able to detect ascitic fluid unless the volume is about a quart or more
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Auchitis = (Architis) = Inflammation of the anus; proctitis
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Billows Fever or Remittent Fever = Archaic term for relapsing fever characterized by bilious vomiting and diarrhea.
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Boils = A boil, also referred to as a skin abscess, is a localized infection deep in the skin. A boil generally starts as a reddened, tender area. Over time, the area becomes firm and hard. Eventually, the center of the abscess softens and becomes filled with infection-fighting white blood cells that the body sends from the bloodstream to eradicate the infection. This collection of white blood cells, bacteria, and proteins is known as pus. Finally, the pus "forms a head," which can be surgically opened or spontaneously drain out through the surface of the skin. There are several different types of boils
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Bronchitis = is an acute inflammation of the air passages within the lungs. It occurs when the trachea (windpipe) and the large and small bronchi (airways) within the lungs become inflamed because of infection or other causes
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Camp Fever = This term was used for all of the continuing fevers experienced by the army: Typhoid Fever, Malarial Remittent Fever, and Typho-malarial Fever. The last named is a combination of elements from the first two diseases. This combination, Typho-malarial Fever, was the characteristic "camp fever" during the Civil War.
Symptoms included: a pronounced chill followed by an intermittent fever, abdominal tenderness and nausea, general debility, diarrhea, retention of urine, and furring of the tongue.
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Cardiac Disease = Heart Disease
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Catarrh = 1)Inflammation of mucous membrane most commonly in the throat and nose, accompanied by an increased secretion mucous, sometimes accompanied by fever, or, rarely cerebral hemorrhage
2)An inflammatory affection of any mucous membrane, in which there are congestion, swelling, and an alteration in the quantity and quality of mucus secreted; as, catarrh of the stomach; catarrh of the bladder. Note: In America, the term catarrh is applied especially to a chronic inflammation of, and hyper secretion from, the membranes of the nose or air passages; in England, to an acute influenza, resulting in a cold, and attended with cough, thirst, lassitude, and watery eyes; also, to the cold itself.
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Catarrhal Fever = A fever, either typhoid, nervous, or synochal, attended with symptoms of catarrh.
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Chronic Diarrhea = See Diarrhea; long-lasting or recurrent Diarrhea
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Circinatis = Cystitis? (possible misspelling) inflammation of the Bladder; Cystitis, generally starts with an infection in the urethra that moves into the prostate, then into the bladder. The most common cause of recurring cystitis in men is a persistent bacterial infection of the prostate
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Colica = Spasm of any hollow or tubular soft organ accompanied by pain. Pertaining to Colin
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Colitis = Inflammation of the colon.
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Congestion of Brain = or Cephalaemia, Congestion, active or passive, of the brain
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Conjunctivitis = Inflammation of the conjunctiva characterized by redness and often accompanied by a discharge
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Constersa?=
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Constipation = Infrequent or difficult evacuation of the feces.
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Consumption = Tuberculosis (also called Phthisis), An acute, eruptive, contagious disease caused by a virus and marked by an onset of chills, high fever, backache and headache. Skin eruptions appear in two to five days.
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Contused wound = An injury in which the skin is not broken; a bruise.
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Contusion = An injury in which the skin is not broken; a bruise.
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Contusio = A bruise or injury where the skin is not broken
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Cystritis = This is the common misspelling of Cystitis, it’s the Inflammation of the urinary bladder
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Debilitas = Debilitas was a former medical term for weakened and enfeebled condition. Nineteenth century doctors often used the Latin root or equivalent of an English word
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Debility = Abnormal bodily weakness or feebleness; decay of strength. This was a term descriptive of a patient's condition and of no help in making a diagnosis. Lack of movement or staying in bed. Synonym: asthenia
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Diarrhea = is a frequent loose or liquid bowel movements, commonly results from gastroenteritis caused by viral infections, parasites or bacterial toxins, In sanitary living conditions where there is ample food and a supply of clean water, an otherwise healthy patient usually recovers from viral infections in a few days. However, for ill or malnourished individuals diarrhea can lead to severe dehydration and can become life-threatening without treatment
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Disposition = ( found this descriptive word in a few soldiers medical records), the predominant or prevailing tendency of one's spirits; natural mental and emotional outlook or mood, characteristic attitude, state of mind regarding something
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Dropsy = Archaic word for edema; The dropsy is a preternatural swelling of the whole body, or some part of it, occasioned by a collection of watery humour. It is distinguished by different names, according to the part affected, as the anasarca, or a collection of water under the skin; the ascites, or a collection of water in the belly; the hydrops pectoris, or dropsy of the breast; the hydrocephalus, or dropsy of the brain
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Dropsical Effusion = See Hydrops or Dropsy
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Dysentery = Various intestinal diseases with inflammation of the bowels, abdominal pain, and bloody diarrhea. (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is an infection of the digestive system that results in severe diarrhea containing mucus and blood in the feces. Dysentery is typically the result of unsanitary water containing micro-organisms which damage the intestinal lining.
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Dyspepsia = A disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea, Acid Indigestion
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Effusion = the condition or disease as described as effusion into left Plural sac James S. Anderson’s record of Co. C, escape of fluid into a part, as the Pleural Cavity such as (pyo) pus, (hydro) serum, (hemo) blood, (chylo) lymph, (pneumo) air, (hydropneumo) serum & air, (pyopneumo) pus & air thorax. Each of these are extremely painful.
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Endocarditis = Inflammation of the heart
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Enteritis = Inflammation of the intestine, usually referring only to the small intestine. it is a convenient term for disorders of the bowel in which there is inflammation of the lining of the bowel wall. Varieties of Enteritis include; dysentery, mucous colitis, typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever.
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Epilepsia = Acute inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by streptococcus bacteria; characterized by reddening and severe inflammation, can lead to pustules. Usually accompanied by severe constitutional symptoms.
2) The ``falling sickness,'' so called because the patient falls suddenly to the ground; a disease characterized by paroxysms (or fits) occurring at interval and attended by sudden loss of consciousness, and convulsive motions of the muscles
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Erysipelas = Redness or inflammation of some part of the skin, with fever, inflammatory or typhoid, and, generally, vesecations on the affected part, and symptomatic fever. It is also called St. Anthony's Fire, Ignis Sacer ("Sacred Fire"), the Rose and other names
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Fever = Fevers are divided into continual, remitting, intermitting, and such as are attended with cutaneous eruption or topical inflammation, as the small-pox, erysipelas, &c. By a continual fever is meant that which never leaves the patient during the whole course of the disease, or which shows no remarkable increase or abatement in the symptoms. This kind of fever is likewise divided into acute, slow, and malignant. The fever is called acute when its progress is quick, and the symptoms violent; but when these are more gentle, it is generally denominated slow. When livid or petechial spots show a putrid state of the humours, the fever is called malignant, putrid, or petechial. A Remitting fever differs from a continual only in degree. It has frequent increases and decreases, or exacerbations and remissions, but never wholly leaves the patient during the course of the disease. Intermitting fevers, or agues, are those which, during the time that the patient may be said to be ill, have evident intervals or remissions of the symptoms
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Febris Consistent or Fever Continuous = By a continual fever is meant that which never leaves the patient during the whole course of the disease, or which shows no remarkable increase or abatement in the symptoms
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Febris Typhoidis = See Typhoid Fever
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Fibris Intermittens = Intermitting fever, or agues, are those which, during the time that the patient may be said to be ill, have evident intervals or remissions of the symptoms
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Gonorrhea = A discharge resembling pus, from the urethra, with heat of urine, etc., after impure coition, to which often succeeds a discharge of mucous from the urethra, with little or no dysury, called the gleet. This disease is also called Flour albus malignus and Blennorrhagia. In English, a clap, from old French word clapises, which were public shops, kept and inhabited by single prostitutes, and generally confined to a particular quarter of the town, as is even now the case in several of the great towns in Italy. In Germany, the disorder is named tripper, from dripping; and in French, chaudpisse, from the heat and scalding in making water
2) A sexually transmitted disease caused by gonococcal bacteria that affects the mucous membrane chiefly of the genital and urinary tracts and is characterized by an acute purulent discharge and painful or difficult urination, though women often have no symptoms
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Haemorrhia = Heavy Bleeding
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Hematuria = This is a hemorrhage from the mucous membrane of the urinary passages, the kidneys, bladder or urethra, Abnormal presence of blood in the urine
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Hemorrhoids = also known as Piles, Livid and painful swellings formed by the dilation of the blood vessels around the margin of, or within, the anus, from which blood or mucus is occasionally discharged; piles; emerods
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Hepatic Disease = also known as Liver Diseases, There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Others can be the result of drugs, poisons or drinking too much alcohol. If the liver forms scar tissue because of an illness, it's called cirrhosis. Jaundice, or yellowing of the skin, can be one sign of liver disease
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Hepatitis = Inflammation of the liver, Hepatitis is any of several liver diseases characterized by inflammation, liver enlargement, jaundice, fever and abdominal pain. It can be caused by a number of different etiologies: some of these are drug, alcohol, or toxin-induced hepatitis, autoimmune disease, cholestasis, and viral hepatitis
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Hydrarthrus = (Hydrarthrosis)= serous (fluid) effusion in a joint cavity; white swelling; usually painless swelling of the same joint. A condition the last for 3-5 days. The period between attacks is commonly 2-4 weeks, during which time the joints are normal. The knee is the usual joint involved but the elbow, hip, & ankle may be affected as well.
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Hydrops = See Dropsy or Edema, ; a morbid accumulation of water in a cavity, or the cellular substance.
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Hypertrophy Heart = Enlargement of an organ, like the heart
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Icterus = A disease, the principal symptoms of which is yellowness of the skin and eyes, with white feces and high-colored urine. It admits of various causes; in fact, any thing which can directly or indirectly obstruct the course of the bile, so that it is taken into the mass of blood and produces the yellowness of surface; the bile being separated by the kidneys, causes yellowness of urine, and its being prevented from reaching the intestine occasions the pale colored feces
Yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood; can be a symptom of gallstones or liver infection or anemia. Synonym: jaundice
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Icterus = Pertaining to Icterus, symtoms, beginning of
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Indigestion = Dyspepsia, Acid indigestion
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Inflammation of throat and tongue?
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Inguinal Hernia = Hernia of the Groin region, a tear in the wall of the abdominal muscle where the inguinal sac descends into the scrotum, (Double Inguinal Hernia) is both sides
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Intermittent Fever = See Malarial Fever. Symptoms recur every 48 hours.
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Insipient Phthisis = Tuberculosis is beginning to exist or appear; in an initial stage
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Irritatis Spinatis = (can’t find a definition on this), however, it is suggestive of an irritated spine, possible inflammation of the spine causing tingling & numbness or partial paralysis in the lower limbs
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Jaunders = See Icterus
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Jaundice = A disease proceeding from obstruction in the liver, and characterized by a yellow color of the skin, etc.
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Lumbago = A rheumatic pain in the loins and the small of the back.
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Lung Disease = See Catarrh, Pneumonia
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Malarial Fever = A fever produced by malaria, and characterized by the occurrence of chills, fever, and sweating in distinct paroxysms, At intervals of definite and often uniform duration, in which these symptoms are wholly absent (intermittent fever), or only partially so (remittent fever); fever and ague; chills and fever.
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Marasmus = Malnutrition occurring in infants and young children, caused by an insufficient intake of calories or protein and characterized by thinness, dry skin, poor muscle development, and irritability. In the mid-nineteenth century, specific causes were associated with specific ages: In infants under twelve months old, the causes were believed to be unsuitable food, chronic vomiting, chronic diarrhea, and inherited syphilis. Between one and three years, marasmus was associated with rickets or cancer. After the age of three years, caseous (cheeselike) enlargement of the mesenteric glands (located in the peritoneal fold attaching the small intestine to the body wall) became a given cause of wasting. (See tabes mesenterica.) After the sixth year, chronic pulmonary tuberculosis appeared to be the major cause. Marasmus is now considered to be related to Kwashiorkor, a severe protein deficiency
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Measles = A contagious febrile disorder commencing with catarrhal symptoms, and marked by the appearance on the third day of an eruption of distinct red circular spots, which coalesce in a crescentic form, are slightly raised above the surface, and after the fourth day of the eruption gradually decline; Rubeola.
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Nephritis = Any of various acute or chronic inflammations of the kidneys, such as Bright's disease
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Neuralgia = A disease, the chief symptom of which is a very acute pain, exacerbating or intermitting, which follows the course of a nervous branch, extends to its ramifications, and seems therefore to be seated in the nerve. It seems to be independent of any structural lesion
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Oedemia = Literally, a swelling of any kind; but now confined to a swelling of a dropsical nature, situated in the cellular tissue, and commonly called watery swelling or puffing. The affection, when extensive, and accompanied with a general dropsical tendency, is termed anasarca.= Excessive accumulation of fluid
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Orchitis = Inflammation of the testicles
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Otarrhoea = Drainage from the ear
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Paralysis of Superior Extremities, (use of limbs) = A disease characterized by loss or great diminution of the power of voluntary motion, affecting any part of the body, Localized paralysis affects a specific region of the body, such as one arm, one side of the face, etc.
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Paralysis Traumat = is the most serious type of spinal cord injury, Traumatic paralysis is caused by an injury to the spine which causes swelling or pressure on the nervous system. Swelling/pressure is capable of inhibiting certain nervous system functions, preventing the victim from moving all or part of their body. When the swelling/pressure associated with temporary paralysis subsides, nervous system functionality is able to return, unless the damage is permanent.
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Paralysis Vesicea = (can’t find a medical definition on this), vesicae means: Urinary or Gall Bladder, so the term is suggestive of a “Paralyzed Bladder” or possible Swelling or Bladder infection
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Parotitis = Inflammation of the parotid gland(salivary glands near the ear), popularly termed the mumps.
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Pharhiosis Pulman =
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Phthisis = Tuberculosis (also called Consumption), An acute, eruptive, contagious disease caused by a virus and marked by an onset of chills, high fever, backache and headache. Skin eruptions appear in two to five days.
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Pleurisy = Inflammation of the pleura (membrane enveloping the lungs), usually occurring as a complication of a disease such as pneumonia, accompanied by accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity, chills, fever, and painful breathing and coughing
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Pleurodynia = this is a temporary illness that is a result of virus infection. The disease features fever and intense abdominal and chest pains with headache. The chest pain is typically worsened by breathing or coughing. The illness usually lasts from 3 to 14 days
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Pleuropneumonia = Inflammation of the pleura and lungs; pneumonia aggravated by pleurisy
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Pneumonia = Inflammation of the lungs. The symptoms of this disease are fever, accompanied with pain in the thorax, which is aggravated by coughing, a quick and hard pulse, with more or less difficulty of breathing
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Predisposition of lower extremities, exposed to severe winter climate-causing dropsical Effusion of his feet and legs
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Purpura Hemorrhage = Malignant petechial fever.= A malignant fever, accompanied with livid spots on the skin
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Rheumatism = Chronic inflammation of the joints; also an obsolete term for rheumatic fever, Infectious disease causing fever, pain, swelling of the joints, and inflammation of the valves of the heart.
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Rubeola = Measles, a disease attended with inflammatory fever, dry cough, sneezing, drowsiness, and an eruption of small red points, perceptible by the touch. An acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash; occurs primarily in children
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Rupia = 1)An eruption of large flattish blebs, which contain a fluid - at first serous, afterwards puriform, and often bloody, which rapidly concretes into crusts, at the base of which are ulcers of variable depths
2)An eruptive disease in which there are broad flat vesicles, succeeded by an ill-conditioned discharge which thickens into superficial scabs, easily detached and immediately replaced by new ones
3)An eruption occurring especially in tertiary syphilis consisting of vesicles having an inflamed base and filled with serous purulent or bloody fluid which dries up and forms large blackish conical crusts
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Salivated = A superabundant secretion of saliva occasioned either locally, by the use of irritating masticatories, or under the influence of some cause which acts on the whole economy, and especially of mercurial preparations
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Sclerus = (Sclera) = a tough white fibrous tissue that covers the white of the eye. It extends from the optic nerve to the cornea.
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Scropula = Scrofula ; tuberculosis of the neck lymph nodes or lymphatic glands
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Syphilis = A venereal disease caused by a spirochete which consists of three phases. PRIMARY: Characterized by a hard chancre on the genitals; SECONDARY: Characterized by eruptions on the skin and mucous membranes and the generalized enlargement of the lymph nodes; TERTIARY: Characterized by the infection and disablement of bones, muscles, and nerve tissue
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Synobitis =
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Tonsillitis = Inflammation of the tonsils, especially the palatine tonsils
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Typhoid Enteritis = Typhoid Fever that affects the intestines at the same time as Enteritis. See Enteritis
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Typhoid Fever = A disease formerly confounded with typhus, but essentially different from the latter. It is characterized by fever, lasting usually three or more weeks, diarrhea with evacuations resembling pea soup in appearance, and prostration and muscular debility, gradually increasing and often becoming profound at the acme of the disease. Its local lesions are a scanty eruption of spots, resembling flea bites, on the belly, enlargement of the spleen, and ulceration of the intestines over the areas occupied by Peyer's glands. The virus, or contagion, of this fever is supposed to be a microscopic vegetable organism, or bacterium Acute infectious disease characterized by continued rising fever, physical and mental depression, rose-colored spots, loss of appetite, and dry mouth with furred tongue.
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Typhoid Pneumonia = Pneumonia with typhoid symptoms or accompanying typhoid fever; children may develop bronchopneumonia and adults may develop lobar pneumonia, with suppuration and empyema.
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Ulcer of Leg/Arm Etc. = An open sore. When a portion of animal tissue dies in consequence of an infection or injury, the death of that tissue taking place by gradual breaking down or disintegration, the process is termed ulceration and the result an ulcer. Ulcers may arise from various causes in different parts of the body, and in association with certain specific diseases, such as syphilis, tubercle, cancer and typhoid fever
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Variola = Smallpox. A very contagious disease characterized by synocha and an eruption of pustules on the third day, which suppurate about the eighth, and afterwards, drying, fall of in crusts
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Variola Confluent = The eruption is seen earlier and is much more profuse, running together in the severe types. The fever is very active, and the systemic disturbance of a most serious nature. Maturation and desiccation are more prolonged, while the secondary fever is quite active. Suppuration is much greater, and the cutis vera is more often involved. Cicatrization and desquamation follow
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Varioliod = This is, really, small pox, modified by previous inoculation or vaccination; and hence it has been properly called modified small pox. It is, almost always, a milder disease than small pox; and this circumstance, with its shorter duration, exhibits the salutary effects of previous vaccination or inoculation. It has appeared epidemically
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Varioloid Pneumonia = combination of two diseases, Smallpox & Pneumonia
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Vulmus Contus = a wound or injury where the skin is not broken; bruised
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Vulmus Incisum = Relating to a wound caused by a cut
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Vulmus Sclopiticum = Relating to a wound caused by a gunshot wound
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